History Of Armenia

Historical facts, myths and legends about the History of the Armenians and the region of current and historic Armenia.
Posted on 03, October 2014 October 03 2014 2014年10月3日 by historyofarmenia
Photo: Akhtamar Island, Lake Van in the spring & Church of the Holy Cross 10th c. AD. Historic Armenia, today part of the Turkish Republic. 

Akhtamar Island, Lake Van, Church of the Holy Cross built in the 10th Century AD, commissioned by King Gagik Artsruni, of the Artsruni Dynasty, rivals of the Bagratuni Dynasty. Rivalry between the two powerful Armenian houses of Bagratuni & Artsruni were not severe, but destabilized the region from the onslaught of invading Arab forces from the south during the middle ages. 

The unique importance of the Cathedral Church of the Holy Cross comes from the extensive array of bas-relief carving of mostly biblical scenes that adorn its external walls. The meanings of these reliefs have been the subject of much and varied interpretation.

Van was inhabited by Armenians since the dawn of civilization, the Van fortress was founded in the 9th century BC, firstly by the Armenian Araratian King Arame, or his folk legend name “Ara The Beautiful” who was directly descended from the Nairi tribe of Armenia. The Van fortress was made the capital of the Ararat Kingdom by the Armenian King Sarduri I in the 9th century BC. The citadel was called Tushpa (Tosp) at the time, the province was called Biainili or Vianili. The B/V prefix both bare the same sound, Vianili & Bianili. 
The letter “B” is often used as “V” in Arartian (Ancient Armenian) texts showing a linguistic evolution in pronunciation or script, this is where the word Van derives from. Many Armenian locations bare the van suffix, such as yereVAN, seVAN, stepanaVAN, the meaning of the word “VAN” is “place to live” or “residence”, showing belonging. The provincial region is known to Armenians as Vasbouragan, however the city, or inhabited area has always been called Van. Van is the satem classification for belonging in the Armenian language, hence the oldest inhabited Armenian region is simply referred to as Van, meaning ‘Place to live’ or ‘residence’.
Source: Monarchy Of Historical Armenia. (2014, March 13). Akhtamar Island, Lake Van, Church of the Holy Cross [Facebook post]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/nmo2owr.

#Armenian #Van #Akhtamar #Island #history #ancient #medieval

Photo: Akhtamar Island, Lake Van in the spring & Church of the Holy Cross 10th c. AD. Historic Armenia, today part of the Turkish Republic.

Akhtamar Island, Lake Van, Church of the Holy Cross built in the 10th Century AD, commissioned by King Gagik Artsruni, of the Artsruni Dynasty, rivals of the Bagratuni Dynasty. Rivalry between the two powerful Armenian houses of Bagratuni & Artsruni were not severe, but destabilized the region from the onslaught of invading Arab forces from the south during the middle ages.

The unique importance of the Cathedral Church of the Holy Cross comes from the extensive array of bas-relief carving of mostly biblical scenes that adorn its external walls. The meanings of these reliefs have been the subject of much and varied interpretation.

Van was inhabited by Armenians since the dawn of civilization, the Van fortress was founded in the 9th century BC, firstly by the Armenian Araratian King Arame, or his folk legend name “Ara The Beautiful” who was directly descended from the Nairi tribe of Armenia. The Van fortress was made the capital of the Ararat Kingdom by the Armenian King Sarduri I in the 9th century BC. The citadel was called Tushpa (Tosp) at the time, the province was called Biainili or Vianili. The B/V prefix both bare the same sound, Vianili & Bianili.
The letter “B” is often used as “V” in Arartian (Ancient Armenian) texts showing a linguistic evolution in pronunciation or script, this is where the word Van derives from. Many Armenian locations bare the van suffix, such as yereVAN, seVAN, stepanaVAN, the meaning of the word “VAN” is “place to live” or “residence”, showing belonging. The provincial region is known to Armenians as Vasbouragan, however the city, or inhabited area has always been called Van. Van is the satem classification for belonging in the Armenian language, hence the oldest inhabited Armenian region is simply referred to as Van, meaning ‘Place to live’ or ‘residence’.
Source: Monarchy Of Historical Armenia. (2014, March 13). Akhtamar Island, Lake Van, Church of the Holy Cross [Facebook post]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/nmo2owr.

#Armenian #Van #Akhtamar #Island #history #ancient #medieval

Posted on 23, September 2014 September 23 2014 2014年9月23日 by historyofarmenia
Gold bracelet with tips in the form of lion heads. Armenian Kingdom of Van-Ararat. 8th century BC.




Source: Nazaryan, G. (2014, September 11). Kingdom of Van-Ararat. [Facebook post]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/lz836ld. 



#Armenian #Urartu #history #ancient #Van #jewelry #gold #Armenia #lion  #art #bracelet

Gold bracelet with tips in the form of lion heads. Armenian Kingdom of Van-Ararat. 8th century BC.


Source: Nazaryan, G. (2014, September 11). Kingdom of Van-Ararat. [Facebook post]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/lz836ld.

#Armenian #Urartu #history #ancient #Van #jewelry #gold #Armenia #lion #art #bracelet

Posted on 21, September 2014 September 21 2014 2014年9月21日 by historyofarmenia
Painting: Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem visiting the Armenian King Gosdantin III (Constantine III) in 1347, by Henri Delaborde – 1844.

The nobles elected Constantine III King of Armenia (1344- 1363), the eldest son of Baldwin of Neghir, who had died in 1336 in the prison-house of the Emir of Aleppo. For the first time the kingdom of New Armenia chose a ruler outside of the baronial house of Hetum. The new monarch was, however, related to the royal dynasty by his marriage with Mary, the daughter of the Regent Ochin and Joan of Anjou.
The first act of this sovereign was infamous. He confiscated the property of Soldane, the wife of John of Lusignan, and her children Bohemon and Leo, aged five and two years respectively, and shut up the princess and the two little boys on the island of Gorigos where he attempted to kill them by sending them poisoned honey. Failing in this, he ordered the three captives to be drowned. Soldane was warned fortunately and escaped with her two children to Cyprus, where she placed herself under the protection of Hugh IV of Lusignan.

Source: Morgan, J. De. (1918). The Kingdom of New Armenia (1199-1375). In J. De Morgan (Ed.), The history of the Armenian people, from the remotest times to the present day (pp. 253). Boston, USA: Hairenik Press, pref. 1918.


#Armenia #kingdom #Constantine #Armenian #Cilicia #history #read #painting #art #knight #crusade #monarchy

Painting: Knights of the Order of St. John of Jerusalem visiting the Armenian King Gosdantin III (Constantine III) in 1347, by Henri Delaborde – 1844.

The nobles elected Constantine III King of Armenia (1344- 1363), the eldest son of Baldwin of Neghir, who had died in 1336 in the prison-house of the Emir of Aleppo. For the first time the kingdom of New Armenia chose a ruler outside of the baronial house of Hetum. The new monarch was, however, related to the royal dynasty by his marriage with Mary, the daughter of the Regent Ochin and Joan of Anjou.
The first act of this sovereign was infamous. He confiscated the property of Soldane, the wife of John of Lusignan, and her children Bohemon and Leo, aged five and two years respectively, and shut up the princess and the two little boys on the island of Gorigos where he attempted to kill them by sending them poisoned honey. Failing in this, he ordered the three captives to be drowned. Soldane was warned fortunately and escaped with her two children to Cyprus, where she placed herself under the protection of Hugh IV of Lusignan.

Source: Morgan, J. De. (1918). The Kingdom of New Armenia (1199-1375). In J. De Morgan (Ed.), The history of the Armenian people, from the remotest times to the present day (pp. 253). Boston, USA: Hairenik Press, pref. 1918.


#Armenia #kingdom #Constantine #Armenian #Cilicia #history #read #painting #art #knight #crusade #monarchy

Posted on 18, September 2014 September 18 2014 2014年9月18日 by historyofarmenia
Plaque in the form of a winged lion. Kingdom of Van-Ararat. 8th-7th century BC.


Source: Nazaryan, G. (2014, September 10). Plaque in the form of a winged lion. [Facebook post]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/lxpqp3m.


#Armenia #Van #Kingdom #ancient #heritage #Armenian #Urartu #plaque #lion #bird #wings

Plaque in the form of a winged lion. Kingdom of Van-Ararat. 8th-7th century BC.


Source: Nazaryan, G. (2014, September 10). Plaque in the form of a winged lion. [Facebook post]. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/lxpqp3m.


#Armenia #Van #Kingdom #ancient #heritage #Armenian #Urartu #plaque #lion #bird #wings

Posted on 17, September 2014 September 17 2014 2014年9月17日 by historyofarmenia
Photo: Noravank Monastery surrounded by red colored landscape.


Some text from an old German medical book Gart der Gesundheit (Garden of Health, 1470)  describing the healing properties of Armenian earth. Modern medicine has advanced quite a bit since the old days, but I think it is still interesting to read about the “knowledge” of the old. It’s an interesting book about alchemy, various herbs and their peculiar properties. The following is an English translation:

Bolus Armeniaca; Earth from Armenia. It’s a kind of marble that was once highly prized for its fineness. Herbarius in Dyetsche writes “Bolus armeniacus or red soil of Armenia is a kind of earth, it has the power to contract and stop. You have to choose Armenian earth that is totally red. Armenian earth is good against spitting blood thus: Take barley water, disband or dissolve in it the Arabic gum and dragagantum with Armenian soil. The same is also good against redness of the body. If you give it with plantain water or make a plaster on the intestine with the egg white with Armenian soil and seeds of plantain. Against bleeding from the nose, take Armenian earth and the juice of Teesdalia, mix it together and place the mixture in the nose.
From Beverwijck “Bolus Armenia and Sigillum Lemnium (so called because in the old times on the Island of Lemnos the image of the Goddess Diana was printed on that soil) are for valid reasons in Matthiolus in his fifth book on Dioscorides Chapter 73 shown as similar remedies although in the pharmacies they are usually found separately. The Armenian earth cures the bites of snakes and other venomous creatures, helps against plague-like fevers, takes away the venom from poisonous drinks, resists rotting, stops blood spitting, dysentery and galvanization. Not far from the city Vassy in the landscape of Champagne and Cuysel Burgundy there is soil dug from there baring similarities with the Armenian bole.“

Source: PeopleOfAr. (2011, November 9). Healing power of Armenian soil. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/kv9ukcx. 


#Armenia #medicine #old #medieval #science #book #German # GartderGesundheit #read #health #BolusArmeniaca #red #soil #landscape #Noravank

Photo: Noravank Monastery surrounded by red colored landscape.


Some text from an old German medical book Gart der Gesundheit (Garden of Health, 1470) describing the healing properties of Armenian earth. Modern medicine has advanced quite a bit since the old days, but I think it is still interesting to read about the “knowledge” of the old. It’s an interesting book about alchemy, various herbs and their peculiar properties. The following is an English translation:

Bolus Armeniaca; Earth from Armenia. It’s a kind of marble that was once highly prized for its fineness. Herbarius in Dyetsche writes “Bolus armeniacus or red soil of Armenia is a kind of earth, it has the power to contract and stop. You have to choose Armenian earth that is totally red. Armenian earth is good against spitting blood thus: Take barley water, disband or dissolve in it the Arabic gum and dragagantum with Armenian soil. The same is also good against redness of the body. If you give it with plantain water or make a plaster on the intestine with the egg white with Armenian soil and seeds of plantain. Against bleeding from the nose, take Armenian earth and the juice of Teesdalia, mix it together and place the mixture in the nose.
From Beverwijck “Bolus Armenia and Sigillum Lemnium (so called because in the old times on the Island of Lemnos the image of the Goddess Diana was printed on that soil) are for valid reasons in Matthiolus in his fifth book on Dioscorides Chapter 73 shown as similar remedies although in the pharmacies they are usually found separately. The Armenian earth cures the bites of snakes and other venomous creatures, helps against plague-like fevers, takes away the venom from poisonous drinks, resists rotting, stops blood spitting, dysentery and galvanization. Not far from the city Vassy in the landscape of Champagne and Cuysel Burgundy there is soil dug from there baring similarities with the Armenian bole.“

Source: PeopleOfAr. (2011, November 9). Healing power of Armenian soil. Retrieved from http://tinyurl.com/kv9ukcx.


#Armenia #medicine #old #medieval #science #book #German # GartderGesundheit #read #health #BolusArmeniaca #red #soil #landscape #Noravank

Posted on 16, September 2014 September 16 2014 2014年9月16日 by historyofarmenia
Painting: An Armenian Lady in Cairo by John Frederick Lewis 1855.

Lewis, John Frederick (1804–1876), painter of oriental subjects in watercolour and oil, was the eldest son of the engraver Frederick Christian Lewis (1779–1856) and his wife, Elizabeth Exton. He was born at 33 Queen Anne Street East, London, on 14 July 1804; 1805 is incorrectly given as his birth year in most previous literature. He had two brothers and three sisters. His father’s family was of German descent. Johann Ludwig, John Frederick’s grandfather, went from Hanover to England in the second half of the eighteenth century.

#painting #oil #Armenian #lady #Cairo #art #story #painter #JohnFredrick #Lewis #Woman

Painting: An Armenian Lady in Cairo by John Frederick Lewis 1855.

Lewis, John Frederick (1804–1876), painter of oriental subjects in watercolour and oil, was the eldest son of the engraver Frederick Christian Lewis (1779–1856) and his wife, Elizabeth Exton. He was born at 33 Queen Anne Street East, London, on 14 July 1804; 1805 is incorrectly given as his birth year in most previous literature. He had two brothers and three sisters. His father’s family was of German descent. Johann Ludwig, John Frederick’s grandfather, went from Hanover to England in the second half of the eighteenth century.

#painting #oil #Armenian #lady #Cairo #art #story #painter #JohnFredrick #Lewis #Woman

Posted on 10, September 2014 September 10 2014 2014年9月10日 by historyofarmenia
Photo: Geghama mountains by Edgar Harutyunyan Photography.



The Geghama mountain range is located in the center of Armenia. There have been counted 127 extinct volcanoes which comprise the range. The area is a part of the “new volcanic zone” of the Armenian tablelands north volcanic arc.

The Azhdahak mountain group consists of four late Quaternary volcanoes: Azhdahak, Kamurch, Tar and Temablur. The first three are located in close proximity, Temablur is in isolation, at a distance of 0.8 – 1 kilometer to the west and north-west.

The people you will likely encounter in the Geghama mountain range will either be Herders, Scientists or Tourists.
The Yazidis - are one of the national minorities of Armenia. Nomadic stockbreeding is their major occupation. In the rest of Armenia they also breed sheep and goats. By the summertime they move their herds up into the Geghama Mountains to feed them on a healthy diet of succulent grass and fresh spring water. These cattle produce the most ecologically pure milk, from which the Yazidis make cheese, butter, matsun, tan. They live in military tents with families and even with infants. Their language is Kurmanji, north Kurdish dialect. However in order to define their separate identity the Yazidis call their language “Ezdiki”.

Source: The Mystery of Azhdahak. (n.d.). People. Retrieved from http://www.azhdahak.com. 


#Nature #Armenia #mountain #Geghama #beautiful #volcanoe #Armenian  #Yazidis #people

Photo: Geghama mountains by Edgar Harutyunyan Photography.

The Geghama mountain range is located in the center of Armenia. There have been counted 127 extinct volcanoes which comprise the range. The area is a part of the “new volcanic zone” of the Armenian tablelands north volcanic arc.

The Azhdahak mountain group consists of four late Quaternary volcanoes: Azhdahak, Kamurch, Tar and Temablur. The first three are located in close proximity, Temablur is in isolation, at a distance of 0.8 – 1 kilometer to the west and north-west.

The people you will likely encounter in the Geghama mountain range will either be Herders, Scientists or Tourists.
The Yazidis - are one of the national minorities of Armenia. Nomadic stockbreeding is their major occupation. In the rest of Armenia they also breed sheep and goats. By the summertime they move their herds up into the Geghama Mountains to feed them on a healthy diet of succulent grass and fresh spring water. These cattle produce the most ecologically pure milk, from which the Yazidis make cheese, butter, matsun, tan. They live in military tents with families and even with infants. Their language is Kurmanji, north Kurdish dialect. However in order to define their separate identity the Yazidis call their language “Ezdiki”.

Source: The Mystery of Azhdahak. (n.d.). People. Retrieved from http://www.azhdahak.com.


#Nature #Armenia #mountain #Geghama #beautiful #volcanoe #Armenian #Yazidis #people

Posted on 09, September 2014 September 09 2014 2014年9月9日 by historyofarmenia
Photo: Scepter of King Het’um I (reigned 1226 - 1270). Made from amber and gold.

Hethum I (died 1271) (also transliterated Hethoum, Hetoum, Het’um, or Hayton from Armenian: Հեթում Ա) ruled the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as “Little Armenia”) from 1226 to 1270. He was the son of Constantine, Lord of Baberon and Princess Alix Pahlavouni of Lampron (a third-cousin of Leo I) and was the founder of the dynasty which bears his name: the Hetoumids. Due to diplomatic relations with the Mongol Empire, Hethum himself traveled to the Mongol court in Karakorum, Mongolia, which was recorded in the famous account “The Journey of Haithon, King of Little Armenia, To Mongolia and Back” by Hetoum’s companion, the Armenian historian Kirakos Gandzaketsi.

#Scepter #Armenia #king #Hetoum #dynasty #history #LittleArmenia #Cilicia #read #medieval #gold #amber

Photo: Scepter of King Het’um I (reigned 1226 - 1270). Made from amber and gold.

Hethum I (died 1271) (also transliterated Hethoum, Hetoum, Het’um, or Hayton from Armenian: Հեթում Ա) ruled the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia (also known as “Little Armenia”) from 1226 to 1270. He was the son of Constantine, Lord of Baberon and Princess Alix Pahlavouni of Lampron (a third-cousin of Leo I) and was the founder of the dynasty which bears his name: the Hetoumids. Due to diplomatic relations with the Mongol Empire, Hethum himself traveled to the Mongol court in Karakorum, Mongolia, which was recorded in the famous account “The Journey of Haithon, King of Little Armenia, To Mongolia and Back” by Hetoum’s companion, the Armenian historian Kirakos Gandzaketsi.

#Scepter #Armenia #king #Hetoum #dynasty #history #LittleArmenia #Cilicia #read #medieval #gold #amber